organisms's examples

  • Organisms are a biotic, or living, part of the environment. Some examples are dogs, trees, and humans. Most multicellular organisms can be seen without using a microscope. Some organisms are so small that they cannot be seen with the *** eye. — “Organism - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia”,
  • The organisms, which differed in size and complexity of each organism's genome, used the same number of biochemical reactions How does a single-celled organism, one of the simplest life forms on. — “Learn more about celled organisms | e! Science News”,
  • Top questions and answers about Living-Organisms. Find 122 questions and answers about Living-Organisms at Read more. — “Living Organisms - ”,
  • Definition and other additional information on Organisms from Biology- dictionary. — “Organisms - definition from Biology-”, biology-
  • To gain insight into biological processes, biologists often rely on model organisms. A and B) Artificial data sets where organisms are represented by dots with Euclidean distances. — “BioMed Central | Full text | Selecting representative model”,
  • An organism may either be unicellular (single-celled) or be composed of, as in humans, many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs. The term multicellular (many-celled) describes any organism made up of more than one cell. — “Organism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia”,
  • Unicellular organisms refer to those living entities having only one cell, which is responsible for performing all functions. Some of unicellular organisms examples are amoeba, paramecium, bacteria, and cyanobacteria. Unicellular Organisms. — “Unicellular Organisms”,
  • organism n. An individual form of life, such as a plant, animal, bacterium, protist, or fungus; a body made up of organs, organelles, or other parts. — “organism: Definition from ”,
  • Organisms definition, a form of life composed of mutually interdependent parts that maintain various vital processes. See more. — “Organisms | Define Organisms at ”,
  • Organisms. Learn about Organisms on . Get information and videos on Organisms including articles on occurred, cellular, omnivores and more!. — “Organisms | Answerbag”,
  • taxonomy- The science of classifying organisms. binomial nomenclature- The naming system of using genus and species names to refer to an organism established by Carolus Linnaeus. phylogeny- The study of how organisms change over time. eukaryotic- A cell with a nucleus. — “York Science - Classifying Living Organisms”,
  • In at least some form, all organisms are capable of reacting to stimuli, reproduction, growth and maintenance as a stable whole (after FAO) Based on cell type, organisms may be divided into the prokaryotic and eukaryotic groups. — “Organism”, schools-
  • Micro-biological research relies on the use of model organisms that act as representatives of their species or subspecies, these are frequently well-characterized laboratory strains. To gain insight into biological processes, biologists often rely on model organisms. — “Selecting representative model micro-organisms”,
  • In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system . In at least some form, all organisms are capable of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development, and maintenance of homoeostasis as a stable whole. An organism may either be. — “Living Organisms Information (Dna, Proteins”,
  • A selection of articles related to single-celled organisms. — “single-celled organisms”,
  • How single cells became complex organisms, and examples of single cells exhibiting intelligence and altruistic behavior and working together for the good of the collective. — “Single Cells to Complex Organisms”,
  • Organisms - from WN Network. WorldNews delivers latest Breaking news including World News, U.S., politics, business, entertainment, science, weather and sports news. Search News and archives in 44 languages. — “Organisms”,
  • However, two basically different descriptions of organisms have arisen from different ways of understanding and interpreting biological processes. A second view of organisms sees them as wholes that cannot be reduced to the products of genes and the action of natural selection. — “Offprint 1 From Perspectives in Ethology, Vol. 2, Behavioural”,
  • Biologists readily recognize an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) as a living Microscopic organisms, generally single-celled and invisible to the *** eye, are the. — “Organism - encyclopedia article - Citizendium”,
  • Teaching With Model Organisms. Model organisms are those that useful data sets have been already gathered to describe basic biological processes. And they are more amenable to asking certain questions due to their simplicity of structure and features (Bolker, 1995). — “Teaching With Model Organisms | WormClassroom”,
  • In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system (such as animal, plant, fungus, or micro-organism). In at least some form, all organisms are capable of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development, and maintenance of homoeostasis as a stable whole. — “Organisms”,
  • In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is an organized, This class of matter includes individuals with the capability of reproducing and producing new organisms that are more or less like themselves (Luria et al. 1981). — “Organism - New World Encyclopedia”,

related videos for organisms

  • Microorganisms This is a Cool video of A LOT of Microorganisms... I am in no association with BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES or McGraw Hill
  • Extreme Organisms NASA scientist Chris McKay uses a Raman spectrometer to scan the crystals for organic material -- and clues to how life could be possible on distant planets. Giant Crystal Cave : SUN OCTOBER 12 9P et/pt :
  • Micro-organisms Year 6 have been studying micro-organisms as part of their science work. We made a short movie to help us with our learning.
  • Earth's Tiniest Living Organisms: Somatids (Identify: Friend or Foe?) . 40 years ago, a microscope was invented in Canada through which you can see the smallest living organism on earth. They are called Mycoplasma, endobionts, pro*** and somatids. Whatever you call them, if the water in your tissues becomes too acidic, they have been shown to rapidly multiply and become disease-causing by changing form and invading every type of cell (see my video on Invasion of the Body Snatchers and How Medicine Lost its Way). Whether these tiny "dancing" lifeforms live in balance in your body or proliferate and cause disease depends on the pH of your tissues. Various medical journals include reports and case studies that implicate these micro-organisms in most every inflammatory and auto-immune illness. This includes (but is not limited to): chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, arthritis, ME, MS, heart disease, scerloderma, lupus, mixed connective tissue disorders, Sjogren's syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, IBS, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, eczema, psoriasis, acne, iritis, sarcoidosis, myositis, polymyositis, multiple sclerosis, ADD, ADHD, Alzheimer's, Huntington's Chorea, Parkinson's, short term memory loss, cancer, polycystic ovarian syndrome, Addison's disease, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, Grave's disease, hyperparathyroidism, kidney disease, acute renal failure, cholecystitis, gall stones, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, brain cancer, leukemia and lymphoma.
  • Experiments in the Revival of Organisms 'Experiments in the Revival of Organisms' is a short animation (based on the 1940's original) exploring the invention of the Autojector, a device designed by Russian scientists to revival animals and humans after physical death from massive blood loss. The animation was an Illustration project for my degree and is a mixture of digital and 3d animation, collage, drawing and photography. For more about the project visit www.soulwire-
  • genelec & memphis reigns - organisms genelec & memphis reigns - organisms Album: Scorpion circles
  • Greenpeace - The dangers of Genetically Modified Organisms Greenpeace - The dangers of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), for the environment, animal and human health.
  • Bioinformatic Tutorial: how to find human gene orthologs in early metazoans organisms Here I use reciprocal blast to find the gene FAT4 from Human in the early metazaon Trichoplax.
  • The Evolution of Eukaryotic Organisms: Endosymbiotic Theory - presented by students from Dr. Roger Young's BIOL 322 Genetics at Drury University - This video shows an oversimplified and comical account of the endosymbiotic theory for eukaryotic evolution. It is widely believe that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from an initial symbiotic relationship between heterotrophic phagocytotic bacteria and smaller prokaryotes, some of which were highly efficient at oxidation and others which were autotrophic. These smaller organisms would have benefited from the protection and the anaerobic environment inside their host, while the latter would have received the capacity for photosynthesis and efficient energy utilization. Evidence supports this theory: mitochondria and chloroplasts replicate separately from nuclear mitosis, contain their own DNA (which is circular and has several deviations from the so-called "universal genetic code"), and have smaller ribosomes, corresponding more to a bacterial size. In ***ual reproduction of multicellular organisms, the offspring of a mating receive mitochondria only from the maternal side (mtDNA). - music is "Din Din Wo (Little Child)" by Habib Koité & Bamada
  • Nano Reef Nuisance Organisms Aiptasia anemones and Valonia macroalgae are two common nuisance organisms that should be kept out of reef tanks in general and nano tanks in particular. The best way to prevent their introduction to your tank is to inspect new purchases (especially live rock and corals) very carefully, or to quarantine and observe new purchases for several days before putting them into your tank. Usually Aiptasia anemones come in unnoticed on wild live rock or on other organisms. They do sting corals and other invertebrates and can proliferate if not removed quickly. Your local fish store should take steps to control these in their tanks! The threadfin butterfly fish, Chaetodon aurega, is a superb biological control weapon against Aiptasia. Peppermint shrimps, Copperbanded butterflies and Berghia nudibranchs also consume them but not as reliably or efficiently as C. aurega, You can remove Aiptasia anemones manually with a toothbrush or kill them by injecting them at the base with kalkwasser or Reef Complete. But the best solution of all is to inspect everything very carefully before placing it into your tank and remove any Aiptasia at that time. Please use only captive-bred organisms in your reef aquarium. To see more of our videos click here: To learn more about healthy reefkeeping click here:
  • Bioluminescence: Bioluminescent water Bioluminescence Bioluminescent water Dinoflagellates bacteria *UPDATE* I added an update of this video with slow motion at the end to see the full effects. Check it out. We found some Bioluminescent Dinoflagellates while hanging out in Hong Kong at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. We decided to see how bring we could get them to glow, pretty amazing.
  • organisms/ certified organisms in vera groningen 30 mei 2009
  • Experiments in the Revival of Organisms (1940) Part 2/2 This disturbing film records the successful experiments in the resuscitation of life to dead animals (dogs), as conducted by Dr. SS Bryukhonenko at the Institute of Experimental Physiology and Therapy, Voronezh, USSR Director: DI Yashin. Camera: EV Kashina. Narrator: Professor Walter B. Cannon. Introduced by Professor JBS Haldane. More info here:
  • Experiments in the Reanimation of Dead Organisms. Word of the Day Media: Schwei K . Übersteigens Re-cut of this 1940 Russian Medical film obtained from the Soviet Film Agency Archives, documenting the USSR Institute of Experimental Physiology & Therapys successful Re-Animation experiments of Dead Organisms.
  • What's Wrong with GMOs? By now most people know that GMO stands for Genetically Modified Organisms. But how do GMOs affect us, the food we eat, and the environment? Jeffrey Smith, founder of the Institute for Responsible Technology provides a solid general overview in this interview. The Pinky Show: Institute for Responsible Technology: *This video is being censored in certain countries in Europe. If your friends can't see this, please send them to our website. All of our videos are available at
  • Experiments in the Revival of Organisms Experiments in the Revival of Organisms is a 1940 motion picture which documents Soviet research into the resuscitation of clinically dead organisms. It is available from the Prelinger Archives, where it is in the public domain. The British scientist JBS Haldane appears in the film's introduction and narrates the film, which contains Russian text with English applied next to, or over the top of, the Russian. The operations are credited to Doctor Sergei S. Bryukhonenko.
  • Proteus 2004 Selections from the the film Proteus, a documentary concerning the life, work, and philosophy of Ernst Haeckel, a 19th century naturalist. The film tells of the man's character and influences while using his detailed engravings of Radiolaria, single celled marine organisms, to make animated progressions Music by Yuval Ron.
  • Sebutones - Multiple Organisms Sixtoo & Buck 65. From Psoriasis.
  • Austrian Death Machine - I Am A Cybernetic Organism, Living Tissue Over (Metal) Endoskeleton I am war machine I'm a cybernetic organism, living tissue over metal endoskeleton Neeahh!!! You want to know what I am? Do you know who programmed who? I am a war machine Killing people is what I do I am a cybernetic organism Living tissue over endoskeleton I have been sent back to protect you My mission prerogative is to see this through I am a war machine Killing people is part of me I am a cybernetic organism Living tissue over endoskeleton I am a war machine Don't try to change me I am a war machine You are the one who sent me I am a cybernetic organism Living tissue over endoskeleton
  • Gene Organism and Environment The standard metaphors used to describe DNA and development are examined, including the claim that DNA "makes" protein, that DNA is "self-replicating" and the organisms "adapt" to their environments. In this lecture by distinguished evolutionary geneticist Richard Lewontin, he explains that DNA is manufactured by the cell machinery, that proteins are folded by rules that are not related to DNA sequence and that organisms, rather than adapting to their environment, are actively engaging in constructing their own environments, so that organisms and environments co-evolve. Series: "UC Berkeley Graduate Council Lectures" [2/2004] [Science] [Show ID: 8393]
  • Evolution of simple organisms with neural networks This program simulates an environment in which simple organisms with brains can evolve. The brains are directed graphs with nodes as the neurons and edges as axon/dendrite pairs. The neural network is simulated fully with each signal traveling down the edges, instead of having the conventional approach where all neurons are updated per simulation tick. The DNA is composed of: the structure of the brain, (ie the set of existing edges) parameters for neurons (firing threshold, excitation decay rate), and edges (speed, strength) Genetic algorithm with ***ual reproduction is used to find brains that maximize the number of simulation ticks that an organism survives. Programmed in Python, Pygame library is used for drawing.
  • Genetically Modified Organisms: Best Practices Ethics in Science presents a look into the public awareness of Genetically Modified Organisms and statistics about their consumption. College students are interviewed to understand how much they know about genetically modified organisms and food and exactly how much of the food they eat is genetically modified. Directed By: Michael Dimtsios Produced By: Vinay Shukla Edited By: Vinay Shukla, Michael Dimtsios Starring: Michael Dimtsios, Kevin O' Brien, Christian Strey, Vinay Shukla Royalty free music by Kevin MacLeod at
  • Classification Classification of organisms. A2 Biology Revision (AQA Spec.A) Music: End of You Too by Metronomy
  • BTP- Tyranid Organisms revisited "Alien Swords" are $5 each. They are generic right/left, they work on either side. I have miscasts up for $2.50 each (they still work, just need a little more fill work and TLC). We also have tails for $5 each (these also work for the giant cannons with some re-work) and "Alien Seed Pods" for $40 each. All unpainted, unassembled. And "Giant Alien Talons" for $5 each Tyrannofex: Alpha* Beta (discontinued) Gamma* Omega* Tervigon: Alpha Beta Gamma Delta Swarmlord: Alpha Ninja* Ultra** Harpy: Alpha Gamma in each case is the one closest to the book version. Cost for unpainted is as follows: $135 $195 if marked with * $395 if marked with ** We also have the following, also unpainted for $95: Parasite of Mortrex Tyranid Prime Doom of Malan'tai In each case these are converted from mostly GW plastics. All can be painted for $35/$85/$105/$145 depending on size.
  • Columbia space shuttle organism survival - We Are The Aliens - BBC Space After the traumatic explosion of the 2003 space shuttle Columbia, scientists were surprised to discover micro-organisms that have survived. How does this information impact their knowledge of their universe, and the existence of life? Find out more from this great video from BBC Horizon show 'We Are the Aliens'.
  • Amazing survival of micro organisms - We Are The Aliens - BBC Space Hear the story of Surveyor 3, the probe sent to the moon 2 years before the moon landing and returned to Earth complete with an extremely enduring life form. Brilliant video from BBC Horizon show 'We Are the Aliens'.
  • GMO Foods, Genetically Modified Organisms, Wake Up America 3 Be My Friend - GMO Foods, Genetically Modified Organisms, Wake Up America # 3 Are there health risk with GMOs? Are GMOs Good or Bad? How corporations are influencing our food supply. Wake Up America # 1, Food Supply and Health Care Conspiracy Wake Up America #2, Science of Profit, Corporate Takeover of Science Wake Up America # 3, GMO Foods, Genetically Modified Organisms, Visit Radhia's Website at Visit Peter McCarthy's website Visit Texas Health Freedom Coalition Peter McCarthy is theChief Executive Officer and Wellness Director of Life Energy Holistic Partners, Inc. and holds the degree of Doctor of Naturopathy from Trinity College of Natural Health. He is a Nationally Board Certified Traditional Naturopath and is a member of the Advisory Committee of the American Naturopathic Certification Board. Radhia Gleis is certified in Clinical Nutrition, CCN She is also a Certified BioNutritional ***yst. She has a Ph.D. in pastoral counseling and a M.Ed. in nutrition. She is a professional member of the International and American Association of Clinical Nutritionists, (IAACN), and the American Naturopathic Medical Association (ANMA) and specialized in complementary and alternative medicine. Music by John Richter This video was produced by Psychetruth http ...
  • The Andromeda Strain (1971) Part 13 The best-selling novel by Michael Crichton was faithfully adapted for this taut 1971 thriller, about a team of scientists(Arthur Hill, David Wayne, James Olson, Kate Reid and Paula Kelly) racing against time to destroy a deadly alien virus that threatens to wipe out life on Earth. As usual with any Crichton-based movie, the emphasis is on an exciting clash between nature and science, beginning when virologists discover the outer-space virus in a tiny town full of corpses. Projecting total contamination, the scientists isolate the deadly strain in a massive, high-tech underground lab facility, which is rigged for nuclear destruction if the virus is not successfully controlled. The movie spends a great deal of time covering the scientific procedures of the high-pressure investigation, and the rising tensions between scientists who have been forced to work in claustrophobic conditions. It's all very fascinating if you're interested in scientific method and technological advances but it's more effective as a thriller in which tension is derived not only from the deadly threat of the virus, but from the escalating fear and anxiety among the small group of people who've been assigned to save the human race. The basic premise is still captivating; it's easy to see how this became the foundation of Crichton's science-thriller empire.
  • how we rot & rust, Living Organisms: Somatids (Identify: Friend or Foe?) We give them a vehicle for life, they give us blood forms like platelets, without which we couldn't exist. Earth's Tiniest Living Organisms: Somatids (Identify: Friend or Foe?) HOW WE ROT
  • NUTRITION: The Dirt Facts -MUST KNOW INFORMATION! P.2 ++++ THIS LECTURE IS AVAILABLE IN [email protected] shop1 There is NO relationship more fundamental to your health than your relationship with the soil that supports your every bodily function through its interface with us, FOOD. Paul speaks to a sold out audience at the Society of Weight-training Injury Specialists(SWIS) in Toronto Canada about quite possibly the most important topic of our day and age. Please RATE this video and tell us what you think, good or bad, by posting a video response or text comment. http Please visit tp for more on the work of SWIS. Diet ciliac crohns ibs bowel irritable nutrient supplements holistic health sears atkins southbeach rehab conditioning exercise weightloss disease degenerative muscles joints potbrownies cancer diabetes autoimmune arthritis big business government scandal olympic lifting kettle bell power lifting bench squat deadlift toronto proathlete hockey soil science farming organic biodynamic steiner acres usa grains beef pork chicken vegitables fertility independence revolution green nutrition protien
  • Microorganism Spacial Journey Microorganism too small to be seen by the human eye floating in the space.
  • The Science of Transgenic Technology Part 1 of 2 This video describes the use of transgenic organisms to study evolutionarily conserved patterns of development and function. HHMI description: What do humans, flies, and worms have in common? More than you might think. See how transgenic organisms are engineered, and how they enable researchers to study genetic diseases. Also featured on the HHMI DVD, Learning from Patients: The Science of Medicine, available free from HHMI.
  • The difference between normal and genetically modified food A scientist explains the difference between traditionally grown plants and genetically modified plants, using the potato as an example. Taken from the documentary "Genes on the menu" on Download in full from -
  • The Deep Blue Sea Alien Creatures (Orbital) i had to cut this after watching it to much n just getin to the bits i like so chill with this
  • Experiments in the Revival of Dead Organisms A film showing Soviet scientists killing and reviving various dogs. Yes.
  • Soil Biology (Microfauna) - Terry Tollefson Viewing soil extracts under the microscope
  • A Short History Of Nearly Everything Science & Reason on Facebook: Complexity (Chapter 7): A Short History of Nearly Everything. --- Please subscribe to Science & Reason: • • • • --- Climbing the Ladder of Structure It is possible to view the entire history of the universe as a story of complexity emerging again and again from simple systems under the influence of simple rules. The laws of physics bind together the most fundamental constituents of matter electrons and quarks into stable structures called atoms. Atoms themselves are subject to a new set of rules ... pushing and pulling one another, and combining into new forms molecules governed by the laws of chemistry. Simple molecules of water and carbon dioxide, consisting of only a few atoms, can combine and interact in ever more complicated ways ... building more and more complex structures ... clumps and chains and rings. The rules of chemistry are universal. The same kinds of amino acids that we find in our own bodies can also be found in the cold depths of space. At some point, very large and complex molecules become capable of something new. DNA molecules make copies of themselves. The chemical metabolism inside of a cell produces and stores energy ... energy that can be used for motion... and reproduction. The raw material of chemistry has given rise to a new kind of complex behavior one that we call life. Large multi-cellular organisms involve a whole new class of ...
  • Rotifera: A visual celebration of the smallest animals Rotifera are tiny multicellular animals that are an amazingly important part of the food chain in most aquatic environments. They are the stepping stone in that food chain between bacteria and tiny algae particles and larger creatures, like insect larvae or filter feeders like ducks. Even being so small, they have eyes, a complete digestive system, and even a brain consisting of fif*** cells. Without these amazingly tiny wonders, the ecology webs of the world would collapse.
  • How Evolution REALLY Works, Part I Link to interactive evolution simulator: How Evolution Works the GAME. A must see!!! KevinPluck has turned this simulation into an interactive game. You are the predator and the squares evolve to avoid you eating them. The world is full of misinformation. Interesting how most of the Young Earth Creationists and people pushing Intelligent Design, clearly don't have an education in the biological sciences. Evolution is the product of Natural Selection AND Mutation. Either alone does nothing. Evolution is the logical outcome of the world around us. Organisms that store their genetic information in DNA are guaranteed to have mutations. Mutations produce NEW variation. Reproducing organisms are guaranteed to compete for resources. Competition between variable organisms leads to natural selection, ie those organisms that possess variation that gives then an advantage will out compete those who don't. Organisms with deleterious variation will lose to all other organisms. In this way the ENVIRONMENT SELECTS the best organisms. This has the effect of passing beneficial mutations on to the next generation and removing deleterious ones. Over time natural selection will lead to a net shift in the genome of the population, ie evolution. Yes, this really is evolution. Changes in allele frequency, changes in gene expression, and changes in transcription factor binding efficiency, they are all evolution. Logic predicts evolution, and observation ...

Blogs & Forum
blogs and forums about organisms

  • “Blog Roll. Monday, April 28, 2008. Benefits of invading exotic organisms in a marine environment. Student post submitted by Darin Alexander. When we think of invading exotic species you already have a negitive view in your mind. There is a high rate of negative publicity on exotic species”
    — Darwin's Bulldogs: Benefits of invading exotic organisms in a,

  • “hi would you please tell me which typical organisms produce 1)cellulitis 2)impetigo. thanks a bunch”
    — dear forum,( organisms responsible) - USMLE Forum,

  • “. a Nature Top 50 science blog from the American Journal of Bioethics and the natural fauna of organisms that specialize in human prey is”
    — Craig Venter on the ethics of creating synthetic organisms,

  • “It is standard to print the names of organisms in italics, as in Oryza sativa for rice Read Editage Blog in your favorite RSS reader. Subscribe to e-mail”
    — Scientific names of organisms | Editage Blog,

  • “The Reef Tank - Community of reef and salt water aquarists Hi, I'm Christopher Taylor, author of the blog Catalogue of Organisms. At that site, I look at the diversity of life on this planet, and I've been asked if I'd like to contribute something for you to read here”
    — The Life You Don't See In Your Aquarium,

  • “get your (greenmuseum) blog on. Archive for the Organisms' Category. Propaganda stops with live organisms, the workshop will serve as a forum to discuss”
    Organisms ",

  • “I recently came across a post on a Quackwatch-type of blog where the author had posted my warning letter letter about ingesting bacterial soil organisms - also”
    — Bacterial Soil Organisms – HSO's, SO's, SBO's, etc. | Listen, listen2

  • “ResearchBLOG " Vital role of aquatic organisms in improving water quality theory of how all organisms interact and benefit each other, and as a community function toward decontaminating water and increasing water quality: http:///masterblog”
    — Vital role of aquatic organisms in improving water quality,

  • “In his keynote talk at the Genetics Society of America's Genetics 2010: Model Organisms to Human Biology meeting in Boston this week, Harvard the organizer of the Model Organisms to Human Biology conference at”
    — GSA: 'Cardinal' Organisms to Human Biology | The Daily Scan,

  • “Did anyone who reads my blog by any chance go to the Plush You or Crammed Organisms shows? Amigurumi Announcement Birthday Blog Blythes Books Contest Costume Crammed Organisms Crochet Deal Ears Etsy Featured Flickr”
    — Gleeful Things Blog " Crammed Organisms,